The management of copyright through individual rights owners often isn't possible or feasible. In these instances, the collective management organisations (CMOs) play an important intermediary role. CMOs can authorise the use of works of more than 65’000 Swiss copyright owners in the interests of users, while artists receive adequate remuneration for their art.
In Switzerland, there are five CMOs:
- ProLitteris for literature and visual arts;
- SUISA for musical works;
- SUISSIMAGE for audiovisual works;
- SWISSPERFORM for related rights; and
- Société Suisse des Auteurs (SSA) for stage and audiovisual works.
In some cases, collective management is even required by law. This includes the collection of remuneration for photocopying, which is undertaken by ProLitteris.
They can also authorise the use of works of a large number of foreign artists through a system of reciprocal agreements with foreign CMOs.
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